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About marine debris & pollution

Currently, we estimate a total of approximately 8 million tons of plastic enter our ocean every year. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation together with the World

Nutrient pollution

This type of pollution is caused by the over enrichment of water with nitrogen and phosphorus, usually coming from land based activities such as agriculture,

Carbon cycle & sequestration

Another important role of the ocean is its ability to cycle and sequester carbon. The deep water and benthic sediments of the ocean are by

Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is caused by an increase in atmospheric CO2 entering the water. The ocean absorbs roughly 30% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide, with the

Ocean biodiversity

Even though humanity’s actions to date have not always reflected it, many of us deeply appreciate the intrinsic value, biodiversity and beauty of the ocean. This

Bottom water formation

Changes in temperature, as well as other factors such as increased evaporation (leading to higher salinity) and increased freshwater content due to melting (leading to

Coral Bleaching

Coral reefs heavily support the economic, social and cultural services of the countries in which they exist and often account for large portions of GDP. Ocean

Carbon cycle disruption

The IPCC Earth System Model has reported high confidence that a positive feedback loop exists between increasing temperatures and the global carbon cycle led predominantly

About sea-level rise

Increase of ocean heat content has been a large contributor to global mean sea-level rise, about 30%, due to thermal expansion of sea water as

Ocean Warming

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its 5th assessment has reported with high confidence that more than 90% of heat energy accumulated between 1971