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Global Warming

Bottom water formation

Changes in temperature, as well as other factors such as increased evaporation (leading to higher salinity) and increased freshwater content due to melting (leading to

Coral Bleaching

Coral reefs heavily support the economic, social and cultural services of the countries in which they exist and often account for large portions of GDP. Ocean

Carbon cycle disruption

The IPCC Earth System Model has reported high confidence that a positive feedback loop exists between increasing temperatures and the global carbon cycle led predominantly

Ocean Warming

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its 5th assessment has reported with high confidence that more than 90% of heat energy accumulated between 1971

Carbon dioxide at record levels

The industrial slowdown due to the pandemic has not curbed record levels of greenhouse gases which are trapping heat in the atmosphere, increasing temperatures and

A new ocean-monitoring satellite

The Copernicus Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich ocean-monitoring satellite, launched on 21 November, will provide crucial information about sea level rise and critical inputs for weather forecasting

The importance of ‘breathable’ waters

Laboratory experiments indicate that many marine creatures could theoretically tolerate temperatures far higher than what they encounter today. But these studies don’t mean that marine

When agreements are respected

Ozone is a form of oxygen with molecules carrying three atoms instead of two. Ozone is found both in the troposphere, the lower 10 km


The 1,5°C limit

Our challenge: based on today’s commitments, emissions are on track to reach 56 Gt CO2e by 2030, over twice what they should be. Collectively, if


No sign of slowdown UN warns

Levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases have reached another record high, “with no sign of a slowdown, let alone a decline”, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has warned.